Publications › PIAAC Reports
Latest PIAAC Reports
- Skills use at work: Why does it matter and what influences it? (July 2016) - This OECD chapter, part of the OECD Employment Outlook 2016, examines skills use in the workplace, why skills use matters to workers and economies, and its determinants.
- Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills (June 2016) - This OECD report presents results from the nine additional countries that participated in the second round of PIAAC in 2014-15 (including Chile, Greece, Indonesia [Jakarta], Israel, Lithuania, New Zealand, Singapore, Slovenia and Turkey), in addition to the first international round of PIAAC data collected in 24 countries in 2011-12.
- The Survey of Adults Skills Reader's Companion, Second Edition (June 2016) - This OECD volume describes the design and methodology of the PIAAC study and its relevance to other international student and adult skills assessments.
- The Dynamics of Opportunity in America (2016) - This ETS report examines opportunity in America through the lenses of several perspectives, including education, economics, demography, and political science.
- Choosing Our Future: A Story of Opportunity in America (2016) - This ETS report uses PIAAC data to discuss the skills gap and the role that skills play in the U.S. workforce, economy, and in everyday life.
- Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills (April 2016) - This OECD working paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC).
- Adults with Low Proficiency in Literacy or Numeracy (April 2016) - This OECD working paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the information from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) regarding adults with low literacy and numeracy proficiency. View brochure › View brochure (French) › View report ›
- Participation in job-related lifelong learning among well-educated employees in the Nordic countries (March 2016) - This paper explores how participation in job-related lifelong learning (LLL) among well-educated mature workers compares across four Nordic countries.
- Skills of U.S. Unemployed, Young, and Older Adults in Sharper Focus: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) 2012/2014: First Look (March 2016) – The purpose of this NCES report is to present updated and additional results from the U.S. PIAAC household data collection, based on data collected in 2012 and 2014. The report focuses on three key subgroups: unemployed adults, young adults (ages 16-34), and older adults (ages 66-74).
- Examining Associations between Health Information Seeking Behavior and Adult Education Status in the U.S.: An Analysis of the 2012 PIAAC Data (February 2016) – This PLOS paper by Iris Feinberg, Jan Frijters, Daphne Greenberg, Elena Nightingale, and Chelsea Moodie uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the interrelationships among health information seeking behavior (HISB), and health status or use of preventive health measures for U.S. adults both with and without a high school diploma.
- Education and Self-Reported Health: Evidence from 23 Countries on the Role of Years of Schooling, Cognitive Skills and Social Capital (February 2016) – This PLOS paper by Francesca Borgonovi and Artur Pokropek uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the contribution of human capital to health in 23 countries worldwide. It identifies cross-national differences in education, skill and social capital gradients in self-reported health and explore the interaction between human capital and social capital to examine if and where social capital is a mediator or a moderator of years of schooling and cognitive abilities.
- Adult Education and Training Programs for Older Adults in the U.S.: Country Comparisons Using PIAAC Data (November 2015) - This paper by Phyllis Cummins and Suzanne Kunkel of Miami University was posted as a conference proceeding to the American Educational Research Conference that took place in June 2015. The paper uses PIAAC data to explore how adult education and training influences labor market outcomes for middle-aged and older workers.
- OECD Education at a Glance 2015 (November 2015) – Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for accurate information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in education; and the learning environment and organisation of schools.
- Underperforming Adults? The Paradox of Skills Development in Canada (September 2015) – A closer look at the PIAAC results highlights the extent to which Canada’s skills profile is shaped not only by the experiences of those born and educated in this country but also by those of its sizeable immigrant population – one of the largest and most highly skilled in the industrialized world. What may surprise observers is that the results of non-immigrants in Canada are also above average. Herein lies the paradox that this paper will explore: Canada places above the international average when the literacy scores of its immigrant and non-immigrant populations are considered separately, but falls to only average when the scores of both groups are combined.
- OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper: The Causes and Consequences of Field-of-Study Mismatch (July 2015) – Using data from PIAAC, this paper shows that although students may choose to specialize in a particular field, it is not solely up to them to actually work in that field. The paper then evaluates the costs to individuals – in terms of wages, risk of being out of work and job satisfaction. Findings suggest that the costs of field-of-study mismatch may only be high in terms of individual earnings when it is associated to qualification mismatch.
- Examining Associations between Self-Rated Health and Proficiency in Literacy and Numeracy among Immigrants and U.S.-Born Adults: Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) (July 2015) – This PLOS paper by Esther Prins and Shannon Monnat uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between self-reported health (SRH) and literacy and numeracy proficiency for immigrants compared to U.S.-born respondents and for Hispanic versus Asian immigrants.
- Smarten Up: It's Time to Build Essential Skills (June 2015) – This report by the Canada West Foundation analyzed data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies undertaken by OECD and Statistics Canada in 2011, imputed with data from the Canadian National Household Survey of the same year. These findings were combined with the essential skills profiles of more than 300 occupations derived by the federal Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC).
- Adults, Computers and Problem Solving: What’s the Problem? (June 2015) – The OECD report provides an in-depth analysis of the results from the Survey of Adult Skills related to problem solving in technology-rich environments, along with measures concerning the use of ICT and problem solving. Proficiency in problem solving using ICT is related to greater participation in the labour force, lower unemployment, and higher wages. By contrast, a lack of computer experience has a substantial negative impact on labour market outcomes, even after controlling for other factors. View brochure › View news article › View blog › View report ›
- OECD Skills Outlook 2015: Youth, Skills and Employability (May 2015) – Young people around the world are struggling to enter the labour market. In some OECD countries, one in four 16-29 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. The OECD Skills Outlook 2015 shows how improving the employability of youth requires a comprehensive approach. While education, social, and labour market policies have key roles to play, co-ordination between public policies and the private sector is also crucial
- White House Report: President Obama's Upskill Initiative (April 2015) - The President’s Upskill initiative aims to act on PIAAC data which revealed that two-thirds of low-skilled adults in the U.S. were employed. The initiative is focused on empowering Americans with the education and training they need to develop new skills and earn higher wages. The White House report focuses on central questions that are driving the work of the initiative to help more Americans “upskill”.
- Making Skills Everyone's Business: A Call to Transform Adult Learning in the United States (February 2015) – This report presents a vision for making adult skill development—upskilling—more prevalent, efficient, effective, and convenient. This vision rests on an understanding that foundation skills—the combination of literacy, numeracy, and English language as well as employability skills required for participation in modern workplaces and contemporary life—are a shared responsibility of, and value and benefit to the entire community. View guide › View blog › View video message ›
- America's Skills Challenge: Millennials and the Future (January 2015) – This vital new report by ETS sheds light on the growing inequality of opportunity in the United States and the impact this has on both skills acquisition and outcomes for both current and future generations.
- The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance (December 2014) – This working paper by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) exploits unique data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), which allow for the first time to quantify differences in teacher skills in numeracy and literacy across countries.
- OECD Education Working Paper: Comparison of PIAAC and PISA Frameworks for Numeracy and Mathematical Literacy (May 2014) – This working paper authored by Iddo Gal and Dave Tout examines commonalities and differences in how the constructs of adult numeracy and mathematical literacy were assessed in PIAAC and PISA, and sketches selected challenges associated with interpretation of results from these surveys.
- Readiness For The Learning Economy: Insights From OECD’s Survey Of Adult Skills On Workforce Readiness And Preparation (January 2014) – This report by the American Council on Education examines the topic of workforce readiness and preparation using PIAAC data. It discusses the importance of education and skills in the twenty-first century and presents key findings from PIAAC, focusing on skills of adults in the United States.
- OECD Education Working Paper: Returns to Skills Around the World (December 2013) – This working paper authored by Eric Hanushek, Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, and Ludger Woessmann explores new measures for estimating the labor-market returns to human capital using data from PIAAC.
- OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper: A New Measure of Skills Mismatch (December 2013) – This working paper by Michele Pellizzari and Anne Fichen proposes a new measure of skills mismatch that combines information about skill proficiency, self-reported mismatch and skill use.
- OECD Country Note: United States – The OECD has produced a short 15-page report summarizing the PIAAC results for the United States and highlighting major findings in detail.
- Time for the U.S. To Reskill: Consultation Paper (December 2013) – A 10-page paper prepared by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Vocational and Adult Education that explains the OECD Report, provides background information, definitions, and key findings from the report, as well as implications and policy recommendations. The paper also describes the Framework for a National Action Plan and provides links to other resources.
- The Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC): Implications for education and training policies in Europe (October 2013) – Published by the EU, this short report outlines seven key findings which are all specifically relevant for EU education and training policies.
- Behind the Headlines (Winter 2013) – This article from the journal Adults Learning (UK) highlights some of the major trends in the PIAAC findings and explains some of the limitations of interpreting PIAAC data.
- What Is the U.S. PIAAC National Supplement Prison Study? – This article from the Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) newsletter provides more detail about the U.S. PIAAC National Supplement Prison Study that is currently being conducted.
Below are reports produced by the OECD that provide an overview of the conceptual frameworks guiding the development of the direct assessments of literacy, numeracy, reading components, and problem solving in technology-rich environments.
- PIAAC Conceptual Framework of the Background Questionnaire Main Survey
- Literacy, Numeracy and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments - Framework for the Survey of Adult Skills
Other PIAAC Materials
- Implementation of CBT in the PIAAC Field Test and CAT in the PIAAC – Kentaro Yamamoto, Deputy Director of the Center for Global Assessment at ETS, describes the development and implementation of measurement constructs in PIAAC.
- PIAAC Results 2013 (Australia) – The Australian Council for Adult Literacy (ACAL) released a short report on findings from PIAAC 2012 for Australia and their implications for Australian education policy. Australia, by law, was required to release their PIAAC results before the official October 2013 release date.
- Creating the Nordic PIAAC Database – Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Norway and Sweden all participated in the OECD Survey of Adult Skills. During the preparations for the main survey, the five countries created the Nordic PIAAC Network with financial support from the Nordic Council of Ministers. One of the goals for this joint project has been to establish the Nordic PIAAC database, which will contain micro data from the survey, as well as data from registers.